The perennial problem. As perennial plants mature they can start to look congested and tatty, fighting for space with their neighbours and dying out in the centre whilst all the healthy growth is around the outside. Most perennials benefit from being lifted and divided every three or four years. As well as rejuvenating the plants it’s a great way to increase your stock.
When to divide The old-fashioned rule is if it flowers before Midsummer’s Day you should divide it in autumn, and if it flowers after Midsummer’s Day you should divide in spring. There are exceptions, but generally you need to divide when there are clusters of new leaves pushing through the soil (if you wait until the leaves have opened out there’s a bigger area for water loss and your new plants are more likely to wilt and take longer to establish)
How to divide
Arm yourself with a couple of garden forks, a spade and a plastic sheet
Carefully dig out the clump you want to divide and lift it onto the plastic sheet. If the clump is too heavy to lift use the spade to slice sections out of it
Split the clump into several pieces. You might be able to pull the clump apart with your hands or with the garden forks, but woody rootstocks will require a knife or saw. Each piece needs its own shoots and roots
Replant the best bits at the same depth as they were before, after working some compost and slow-release fertiliser into the ground.Water well and remember to keep watering until the roots are well-established
Dividing bulbs Bulbs need to be divided for similar reasons. Many are excellent at multiplying themselves and, over time, clumps become overcrowded and flowering declines because of the heavy competition for nutrients. Snowdrops and Winter Aconites in particular must be divided ‘in the green’ – straight after flowering, and most other bulbs can also be dealt with whilst the leaves are still growing vigorously. Crocus, Daffodils and Grape Hyacinths will all divide well in March.
Lever the clump out and gently rock and twist the bulbs back and forth until they separate.
Don’t allow the bulbs to dry out during transplantation – cover them with wet newspaper while you work
Replant clumps into well-prepared and fertilised soil at the appropriate depth.
As the garden wakes up after its winter rest there are few more cheering sights than a display of daffodils ‘fluttering and dancing in the breeze’. Botanically known as Narcissus, daffodils are also known as jonquils and as the Lent Lily. Immortalised in myths and poems, they are synonymous with spring and symbolise new beginnings.
There are literally hundreds of varieties to choose from; some start flowering in late winter and others through into late spring. Although most are yellow, they are available in white, orange and pink, as well as two-coloured varieties, and single as well as double-flowers.
Daffodils are versatile and very easy to care for, requiring little effort after planting in autumn. Best grown in sun or light shade, they’re not fussy about the type of soil, providing it isn’t waterlogged. They should be left in the ground and will develop into large bold clumps, although they will benefit from dividing after a few years.
Daffodils naturalise well, planted in drifts in the lawn, in borders or grown under trees or shrubs. Shorter-stemmed varieties look great grown in containers or hanging baskets.
You can start deadheading as soon as the flowers have faded, but leave the flower stems and leaves to die down naturally as the bulbs need the leaves to feed them.
Narcissus ‘Replete’ is a peachy-pink double-flowered daffodil with eye-catching ruffles, which grows up to 45cm tall.
Narcissus Papyraceus (Paper-white) are primarily grown for their pure-white flowers with yellow stamens and sweet scent for indoor arrangements but will survive outdoors in mild areas and sheltered spots (40cm tall). Narcissus ‘Jetfire’ is shorter-stemmed at 20cm, and has bright yellow petals with a bright orange trumpet.
Whichever variety is chosen they should provide you with many years of enjoyment.
Bulbs are amongst the easiest and most rewarding garden plants to grow. Get them in the ground or in pots now so you can enjoy a cheerful parade of flowers going through from January to late spring.
Most bulbs can be planted now – Snowdrops, Daffodils, Hyacinths, Crocuses, Fritillaries, Iris, Muscari, Anemones, Scillas, Lillies, Alliums and Crocosmias, – but leave tulips until November. Hardy bulbs can be left undisturbed in the ground and will multiply over time. Only plant non-frost-hardy types if you can face the bother of lifting and storing them, or you’re happy to risk some losses.
The main rule with bulbs is to think big and plant for impact – if you think you need 20, plant 40! And in pots squeeze as many as you can get in without them touching. Plant in groups rather than in straight rows, and if planting a small number of bulbs choose an odd number for a more natural look. You’re unlikely to spend much time sitting out in the garden in February, so make sure you site them where you can see them from your window.
Try planting drifts in the border, or under deciduous trees for a carpet of colour in spring before the trees comes into leaf. Bulbs grown in the lawn will have to be mown around until 6 weeks after flowering. Bulbs in large containers can be planted in layers for a succession of blooms – Snowdrops in January give way to Daffodils and Tulips in March and April, followed by purple Alliums in May.
It’s important to bury them deeply enough – if you aim for three times their own depth you won’t go far wrong. Too shallow and they’re more likely to get eaten by pests. Too deep and they may not reach the surface. A bulb-planting tool and a good garden kneeler are worth their weight in gold if you have lots to plant.